E-learning NET

An E-Learning Glossary

Posted on: Май 31, 2011

Asynchronous learning: Learning in which interaction between instructors and students occurs intermittently with a time delay. Examples are self-paced courses taken via the Internet or CD-ROM, Q&A mentoring, online discussion groups, and email.


C

C-Learning: Classroom learning.  See ILT.

CBT: An umbrella term for the use of computers in both instruction and management of the teaching and learning process. CAI (computer-assisted instruction) and CMI (computer-managed instruction) are included under the heading of CBT. Some people use the terms CBT and CAI interchangeably.

CMI: Computer Managed Instruction refers to programs that evaluate and diagnose students’ needs, guide them though the next step in their learning, and record their progress. Both CMI and CAI (computer programs that provide drill and practice exercises) can be used with little teacher intervention. CEI (computer-enhanced instruction), on the other hand, requires the teacher to be involved in planning and helping to carry out learning activities.


D

Distance education: Educational situation in which the instructor and students are separated by time, location, or both. Education or training courses are delivered to remote locations via synchronous or asynchronous means of instruction, including written correspondence, text, graphics, audio- and videotape, CD-ROM, online learning, audio- and videoconferencing, interactive TV, and FAX. Distance education does not preclude the use of the traditional classroom. The definition of distance education is broader than and entails the definition of e-learning.

Distance learning: The desired outcome of distance education. The two terms are often used interchangeably.


E

E-Learning: E-Learning is the learning process created by interaction with digitally delivered content, services and support.

Some categories of E-Learning:

-On-Demand e-learning: ‘jukeboxes’ of content available when required.
-Live On-Line e-learning: multiple learners in multiple sites simultaneously.
-Learning Objects: granular ‘chunks’ of learning material.
-On-Line Coaching: access to subject matter expertise.
-Knowledge Bases: database access to learning content in a searchable environment.
-Learning Architectures: structures for developing and delivering E-Learning.
-Simulation Based Learning: learning via simulated experience.
-Blended Learning: combining face-to-face classes with technology delivered content.


F

Firewall: Any of a number of security schemes that prevent unauthorized users from gaining access to a computer network or that monitor transfers of information to and from the network.


G

Granularity: The degree of detail something can be broken down into, or the number of discrete components making up any type of system. In e-learning, granularity is defined by the number of content chunks.

GUI (graphical user interface): A computer interface using windows, icons, menus and pointers (a WIMP interface), such as Windows.


H

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language): The programming language used to create documents for display on the World Wide Web.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol): The set of rules and standards that govern how information is transmitted on the World Wide Web.

Hypertext: A system for retrieving information from servers on the Internet using World Wide Web client software. Hypertext consists of key words or phrases in a WWW page that are linked electronically to other Web pages.  The term was coined by pioneering engineer Ted Nelson.

I

ICT: Information and communication technology (ICT).  ICT is defined as any computer-based resource, networked or stand alone, hardware or software.

ILS (Integrated Learning System): A complete software, hardware, and network system used for instruction. In addition to providing curricu lum and lessons organized by level, an ILS usually includes a number of tools such as assessments, reco rd keeping, report writing, and user informa tion files that help to identify learning needs, monitor progress, and maintain student records.

ILT (instructor-led training): Usually refers to traditional classroom training, in which an instructor teaches a course to a room of learner s. The term is used synonymously with on-site training and classroom training (C-Learning).

IMS (Instructional Management System): Global Learning Consortium.  IMS is a global coalition of academic, commercial and government organizations, working together to define the Internet architecture for learning.  IMS is focusing on developing technical specifications that will support a broad range of learning with a global perspective. Their specification development supports the needs of K-12, higher education and training around the world.

Interoperability: The ability of hardware or software components to work together effectively.

ISO (International Organization for Standardization): An international federation of national standards bodies.

J

Java: An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java isn’t dependent on specific hardware and can be launched from within an HTML document or stand- alone.

Java applet: A small Java program that usually executes within a web browser.

JISC: The Joint Information Systems Committee is an independent advisory body that supports further and  higher education by providing strategic guidance, advice and opportunities to use Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to support teaching, learning, research and administration.

K

Knowledge management: The process of capturing, organizing, and storing information and experiences of workers and groups within an organization and making it available to others. By collecting those artifacts in a central or distributed electronic environment (often in a database called a knowledge base), KM aims to help a company gain competitive advantage.

L

LCMS (Learning Content Management System): An LCMS provides an authoring application, a data repository, a delivery interface, and administration tools. The authoring tools provide templates and storyboarding capabilities, and may be used to convert existing content. Some LCMS’s offer collaboration tools, including chat, integrated email, and threaded discussion groups.

Learning environment: The physical or virtual setting in which learning takes place.

Learning object: A reusable, media-independent collection of information used as a modular building block for e-learning content. Learning objects are most effective when organized by a meta data classification system and stored in a data repository such as an LCMS.

Learning portal: Any Website that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learning and training resources from multiple sources. Operators of learning portals are also called content aggregators, distributors, or hosts.

LMS (learning management system): Software that automates the administration of training. The LMS registers users, tracks courses in a catalog, records data from learners; and provides reports to management. An LMS is typically designed to handle courses by multiple publishers and providers. It usually doesn’t include its own authoring capabilities; instead, it focuses on managing courses created by a variety of other sources.

Localization: The tailoring of an offering to meet the specific needs of a geographic area, product, or target audience.

M

Meta data: Information about content that enables it to be stored in and retrieved from a database.

Metatag: An HTML tag identifying the contents of a Website. Information commonly found in the metatag includes copyright info, key words for search engines, and formatting descriptions of the page.

MLE (Managed Learning Environment): The term MLE refers to the whole rang e of information systems and processes of a college or university (including its VLE if it has one) that contribute directly, or indirectly, to learning and the management of that learning.
There is sometimes confusion between a VLE and a MLE. The term Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) is one possible component of a MLE: it refers to the component(s) within an MLE that provides the «online» interactions of various kinds which can take place be tween learners and tutors, including online learning.

M-learning : Mobile learning. This is facilitated via a wireless device such as a PDA, a smart phone or a laptop.

O

Online community: A meeting place for people on the Internet. Designed to facilitate interaction and collaboration among people who share common interests and needs. Online communities can be open to all or by membership only and may or may not offer moderator tools.

R

Reusable: E-Learning content that can be transferred to various infrastructures or delivery mechanisms, usually without changes.

RIO (reusable information object ): A collection of content, practice, and assessment items assembled around a single learning objective. RIOs are built from templates based on whether the goal is to communicate a concept, fact, process, principle, or procedure. (Pronounced «REE-O»)

RLO (reusable learning object): A collection of RIOs, overview, summary, and assessments that supp orts a specific learning objective.

S

SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model):  SCORM is a set of interrelated technical specifications built upon the work of the AICC, IMS and IEEE to create one unified content model. These specifications enable the reuse of Web-based learning content across multiple environments. SCORM dictates how an LMS must make the API (Application Programme Interface) available to the content, so content developers know exactly how to write the JavaScript code to locate and call the API.

Streaming media (streaming audio or video): Audio or video files played as they are being downloaded over the Internet instead of user s h aving to wait for the entire file to download first. Requires a media player, such as RealPlayer, Quicktime Player or Windows Media Player .

Synchronous learning: A real-time, instructor-led online learning event in which all participants are logge d on at the same time and communicate di rectly with each other. In this virtual classroom setting, the instructor maintains control of the class, with the ability to «call on» participants. In most platforms, students and teachers can use a whiteboard to see work in progress and share knowledge. Interaction may also occur via audio- or videoconferencing, Internet telephony, or two-way live broadcasts.

T

Thin client: (1) A network computer without disk drives that accesses programs and data from a server instead of storing them locally. (2) Software that performs the majority of its operations on a server rather than the local computer, thus requiring less memory and fewer plug-ins.

U

URI (uniform resource identifier): The name and address of information (text, graphics, audio, video etc.) on the Internet. A URI usually identifies the application used to access the resource, the machine the resource is located on, and the file name of the resource. A Webpage address or URL is the most commonly used type of URI.

URL (uniform resource locator): The address of a page on the World Wide Web. e.g. http://www.imperial.ac.uk

V

V-Learning: Learning that takes place in a Virtual Environment, or Multi User Virtual Environment (MUVE).

Virtual classroom: The online learning space where students and instructors interact

Virtual community: See online community.

VLE:  See MLE

W

WBT (Web Based Training): Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the public Internet, a private intranet, or an extranet. Web-based training often provides links to other learning resources such as references, email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups. WBT also may include a facilitator who can provide course guidelines, manage discussion boards, deliver lectures, and so forth. When used with a facilitator, WBT offers some advantages of instructor-led training while also retaining the advantages of computer-based training.

X

XML (Extensible Markup Language): The next-generation Webpage coding language that allows site designers to program their own ma rkup commands, which can then be used as if they were standard HTML commands.

XSL (eXtensible Stylesheet Language or eXtensible Style Language): A Webpage design language that creates style sheets for XML pages, which separate style from content so that developers can specify how and where information is displayed on the page.
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